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By John G. Webster (Editor)

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Extra resources for 58.Speech and Audio Processing

Sample text

The four fundamental and most-used switching techniques in interconnection networks are circuit switching, packet switching, wormhole routing, and virtual cut-through. In a circuit-switched network, a complete connection through the network (from the source to the destination) is established before any data are sent. Network resources such as network links and switch ports are exclusively reserved for this connection. Once the connection is established, data are sent over the reserved network links and ports.

To introduce some necessary notation within the context of using neural networks, the speech recognition problem can be written as C = arg maxC P(C|X ) C∗ = arg maxC P(cT1 |xx T1 ) (2) = arg maxC {P(xxT1 |cT1 ) · P(cT1 )} (3) T xt |xx 1 , x 2 , . , x t−1 , cT1 ) t=1 P(x = arg maxC (4) T P(ct |c1 , c2 , . , ct−1 ) · t=1 T ≈ arg maxC T P(xxt |ct ) · t=1 P(ct |ct−1 ) (1) with X ϭ xT1 ϭ ͕x1, x2, . , xT͖ being the input vector feature sequence (frames) calculated from the observed waveform, in practical systems around 100 40-dimensional vectors/s input speech, with C ϭ cT1 ϭ ͕c1, c2, .

Which parameters are useful to tie depends heavily on the used data and can only be found by experiments. Recurrent Neural Networks. For many applications the data D are not a collection of vector pairs in arbitrary order, but the data come in sequences of vector pairs, where the order is not arbitrary. Speech recognition is a typical example for this case: Every preprocessed waveform is an array of vectors xT1 that is to be mapped to an array of target classes cT1 in the form of K-dimensional vectors tT1 .

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