By David E. McNabb
A Comparative background of trade and undefined, quantity I bargains a subjective assessment of the way the cultural, social and fiscal associations of trade and advanced in industrialized countries to supply the establishment we now understand as company enterprise.
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Extra info for A Comparative History of Commerce and Industry, Volume I: Four Paths to an Industrialized World
Traders and merchants joined the artisans and, together, were able to negotiate even greater concessions from the nobility. Of all the concessions and rights that private citizens gained, four stand out. First, people gained the right to form enterprises with fewer political or religious restrictions. Second, these new enterprise groups negotiated the right to acquire goods and hold them for resale, again with little or no interference or restriction. Third, in what turned to be a reverse for artisan’s guilds, enterprises gained the right to add new and different activities to their earlier strictly limited business charters, as well as the right to switch from one activity to another with little or no restriction.
Towns and cities provide two key requirements for business. First, the gathering together in one convenient location of a large number of individuals provides a market for traders’ goods. This was particularly important before advances in transportation made it possible to serve customers outside of a local area. Second, towns served as havens for farm workers who were either forced off their lands by technological developments in agriculture or had fled their farm roots seeking freedom and opportunity elsewhere.
B. Shumpeter 1960, Table V. 1 217 817 952 2,052 1,052 329 3,380 3,354 1756–60 399 976 1,119 2,065 1,672 494 2,831 4,880 1761–5 569 1,100 1,174 2,135 2,086 472 1,572 3,921 1766–70 244 912 1,353 835 2,092 525 2,790 4,410 1771–5 244 930 1,244 1,291 1,825 565 2,002 3,715 1776–80 Foundations of Commerce and Industry 39 the Spice Islands, and even China. English traders were ideally situated to take full advantage of this trade shift, and were not long in doing so. The seeds of England’s growth into full industrialization were planted during the seventeenth century and in the first half of the eighteenth century.