By William I. Orr, Stuart D. Cowan
This authoritative guide covers the layout, development, set up, and operation of fifty two vertical antennas.
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The ESPRIT programme was an ICT programme and already contained many important elements, such as industry and academic involvement, and the fact that the industry partners provided their own funding for the research, only partly reimbursed by the EU . The first frame programme (FP1) was started in 1984. Early frame programmes lasted 4–5 years, but this timeframe was later enlarged to 6–7 years. 1 shows the history of previous programmes. 1. The longer duration of the later projects creates the impression of a strong increase in later programmes.
2 Emerging Trends in Mobile Applications and Services More and more customers are expecting to have the same quality of experience from Internet applications anytime, anywhere, and through any means of connectivity. This expectation is now being better fulfilled as the gap of user experience between mobile and fixed environments becomes narrower and higher data rates are offered by mobile networks. In the future we can therefore expect a further shift of services from the fixed to the mobile network, with users making use of the added value of mobility and location/context awareness.
1 Key parameters of IMT‐2020 systems. Parameter Details Target Peak data rate Maximum achievable data rate under ideal conditions per user/ device Achievable data rate that is available ubiquitously across the coverage area to a mobile user/device Time contribution by the radio network from the time from when the source sends a packet to when the destination receives it Maximum speed at which a defined QoS and seamless transfer between radio nodes which may belong to different layers and/or radio access technologies (multi‐layer/‐RAT) can be achieved Total number of connected and/or accessible devices per unit area 10–20 Gbps User‐ experienced data rate Latency Mobility Connection density Energy efficiency (a) Network Quantity of information bits side transmitted to/received from users, per unit of energy consumption of the radio access network (RAN) (in bit/Joule) (b) Device Quantity of information bits per unit side of energy consumption of the communication module (in bit/ Joule) Spectrum Average data throughput per unit of efficiency spectrum resource and per cell (bit/s/Hz) Area traffic Total traffic throughput served per capacity geographic area 100 Mbps–1 Gbps, depending on wide‐area or hotspot coverage 1 ms over‐the‐air latency To provide high mobility up to 500 km/h with acceptable QoS To support a connection density of up to 106/km2, for example in massive machine‐type communication scenarios Target is at least 10x on network energy efficiency The 5G network must not consume more energy, while providing enhanced features 3–5× increase in spectrum efficiency 10 Mbit/s/m2 in hotspot scenarios architecture, where the macro layer provides coverage to users moving at high speeds or for secure control channels, while a lower layer comprising network nodes with smaller capabilities provides high data rates and connectivity to other RATS (say, WiFi or new mmWave RATs).