By Pukh Raj Rakhecha, Vijay P. Singh
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Extra resources for Applied Hydrometeorology
G = gd, the disturbed air parcel will have the same temperature as the environmental air temperature and would have no tendency to move upwards or downwards. In this case the atmosphere is in a state of neutral condition. Obviously, the environmental lapse rate determines whether the atmosphere is stable, unstable or neutral for vertical air movement. The principal criteria for finding the stability or instability for a dry atmosphere are as follows: 38 Applied Hydrometeorology g < gd g > gd g = gd stable atmosphere unstable atmosphere neutral In the saturated atmosphere, a parcel of air disturbed upward will cool at the saturated adiabatic lapse rate gs.
8 °C. 10 PRECIPITABLE WATER Precipitable water is another useful measure of the water vapor content of the atmosphere. It is defined as the amount of water that would form in an atmospheric column of unit cross section if all water vapor in it (extending from the top of the atmosphere to the surface) were condensed. It is expressed as the height in mm or inches. Estimation of precipitable water in the atmosphere is extremely useful from meteorological and hydrological standpoints. An equation for computing water in the atmosphere can be derived as follows.
About 4% is found as groundwater. 01%) exists as fresh water in lakes and rivers for domestic, agricultural and industrial utilization. 001% of the global water exists in the atmosphere in the vapor state as clouds. Atmospheric processes have a fundamental role in the replenishment of the fresh water supply of the world through evaporation from the oceans, transport of the moisture by air currents to distant places and condensation of the vapor to form clouds followed by precipitation as rain or snow.