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By M. J. Parnham (auth.)

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Additional resources for Are the medical needs for the treatment of acute pain fulfilled?: Istanbul, Turkey, October 5, 1996

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The detection of this abnormal bone morphometry, however, is often difficult. In addition, the shape changes associated with normal aging are still under debate. In particular, there is no consensus on whether a mild wedging of the vertebral body is the result of a continuous remodeling with the advancing age or due to micro fractures. To be able to diagnose osteoporotic vertebral fractures and other pathological morphological changes, these should be distinguishable from normality. Various models of growth and evolution of shape have already been investigated in the field of computational anatomy [1] and in particular in neuroimaging, where abnormal shape change is related to neurological conditions such as dementia [2].

We achieve to limit the rotational alignment error to 5 degrees when using a statistical shape model and to 0 degrees when using the ground truth bone as reference. Prior Work. A few groups have worked on automatic bone fracture reduction. In [7], Moghari and Abolmaesumi align fragments of the proximal femur to the mean of a statistical shape model built from only 5 bones. However, they do not adapt the shape model to the individual anatomy of the broken bone. In [4], Gong et al. perform a reduction of distal radius fractures that uses a 3D statistical shape model to help align the fragments in calibrated 2D x-ray images.

2 The Reduction Algorithm Our method consists of two steps: 1. 1). 2. 2). The adaption is only possible if the fragments are already aligned to the model. The rigid alignment in turn depends on a good model adaption. We propose to solve these two steps simultaneously in an iteration scheme, alternating step 1 and 2. If the ground truth or contra-lateral bone is used as reference, step 2 is omitted. 1 Rigid Alignment For the rigid alignment of each of the fragments, we use the well known Iterative Closest Point (ICP) mesh alignment algorithm as implemented in VTK [1].

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