Epistemology

Download Aristotle on the Apparent Good: Perception, Phantasia, by Jessica Moss PDF

By Jessica Moss

Aristotle holds that we wish issues simply because they seem strong to us--a view nonetheless dominant in philosophy now. yet what's it for whatever to seem stable? Why does excitement particularly are likely to seem strong, as Aristotle holds? and the way do appearances of goodness inspire wish and motion? No sustained research of Aristotle has addressed those questions, or maybe famous them as worthy asking. Jessica Moss argues that the idea of the obvious stable is essential to realizing either Aristotle's mental thought and his ethics, and the relation among them.
Beginning from the parallels Aristotle attracts among appearances of items nearly as good and traditional perceptual appearances corresponding to these fascinated by optical phantasm, Moss argues that on Aristotle's view issues seem stable to us, simply as issues look around or small, in advantage of a mental skill liable for quasi-perceptual phenomena like goals and visualization: phantasia ("imagination"). when we detect that the appearances of goodness which play so significant a task in Aristotle's ethics are literal quasi-perceptual appearances, Moss indicates we will use his particular bills of phantasia and its relation to notion and suggestion to realize new perception into essentially the most debated components of Aristotle's philosophy: his money owed of feelings, akrasia, moral habituation, personality, deliberation, and hope. In Aristotle at the obvious Good, Moss provides a new--and controversial--interpretation of Aristotle's ethical psychology: one that significantly restricts the position of cause in moral concerns, and provides a fully valuable position to excitement.

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Additional resources for Aristotle on the Apparent Good: Perception, Phantasia, Thought, and Desire

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Clearly we need to avoid a reading of this claim on which appetites are for what the agent finds good in precisely the same way that rational desires are – in other words, a reading on which appetites are based on intellectual cognition (thoughts) of things as good. This would be to collapse the difference between appetites and rational desires, ignoring all the evidence that appetites are independent of evaluative beliefs (see section 1). ’ We have already seen that Aristotle characterizes evaluative cognition as essentially motivating; in Chapter 2, I will argue that he also characterizes it as essentially pleasurable.

2 1111b17 he explicitly distinguishes appetites from rational desires on the grounds that the former are for the pleasant instead of for the good; other passages imply the same (see quotations in section 1). And this would seem to imply that only intellect can grasp the good: practical intellect judges things good, while practical perception and phantasia merely represent things as pleasant. Can we reconcile these claims, and attribute to Aristotle a coherent view of nonrational desire? I want to show that we can.

Now the origin of motion is, as has been said, the object of pursuit and avoidance in the practical sphere (ôe Kí ôfiH ðæÆŒôfiH äØøŒôeí ŒÆd çåıŒôüí). 2 For the painful is avoided, and the pleasant pursued, and the painful and pleasant are nearly all accompanied by (ìåôa) some chilling and heating (but we don’t notice this happening concerning very small things). (MA 701b19-702a1)3 The perceptions or phantasiai or thoughts that lead to locomotion – practical cognitions – somehow bring with them heating or chilling, which in turn sets off other changes that lead to locomotion.

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