Download Assessment Sensitivity: Relative Truth and its Applications by John MacFarlane PDF

By John MacFarlane

John MacFarlane debates how we'd make experience of the concept that fact is relative, and the way we would use this concept to offer fulfilling bills of components of our concept and speak that experience resisted conventional tools of study. even though there's a vast philosophical literature on relativism approximately fact, going again to Plato's Theaetetus, this literature (both professional and con) has tended to target refutations of the doctrine, or refutations of those refutations, on the fee of claiming truly what the doctrine is. by contrast, Assessment Sensitivity starts with a transparent account of what it's to be a relativist approximately fact, and makes use of this view to provide gratifying money owed of what we suggest once we speak about what's tasty, what we all know, what's going to occur, what could be the case, and what we should do. The e-book seeks to supply a richer framework for the outline of linguistic practices than average truth-conditional semantics gives: one who permits not only regular contextual sensitivity (sensitivity to beneficial properties of the context within which an expression is used), yet assessment sensitivity (sensitivity to beneficial properties of the context from which a use of an expression is assessed).

The Context and Content sequence is a discussion board for awesome unique learn on the intersection of philosophy, linguistics, and cognitive technology. the final editor is Francois Recanati (Institut Jean-Nicod, Paris).

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15 Even if Sal and Lizzie disagree in their attitudes about Sam, they wouldn’t express it this way: (17) L IZZIE : I like Sam! S AL : # You’re wrong, I hate him. Moreover, mere disagreement in attitude would not motivate retraction. On becoming convinced through experience that peaty whiskeys are tasty, one might say: (18) Last year I said that they weren’t very tasty, but I take that back. I was wrong. An assertion can be retracted, but it doesn’t make much sense to “take back” or retract the expression of an attitude.

2 Force and content Frege taught us to analyze speech acts by factoring them into two components—force and content. Consider, for example, Tom’s assertion that there is fresh powder in the mountains. Its content—what he has asserted—is that there is fresh powder in the mountains. Its force is that of an assertion. He could have asserted that there is black ice in the mountains; in that case, his speech act would have had the same force but different content. Or he could have asked whether there is fresh powder in the mountains; in that case, his speech act would have had a different force but the same content.

4 The equivalence schema It is sometimes argued that relativism about truth is incompatible with the Equivalence Schema. The proposition that φ is true iff φ. For example, in his posthumously published article “The Nature of Truth” (2001), Frank Ramsey criticizes philosophers who “produce definitions of truth according to which the earth can be round without its being true that it is round” (441). He notes that “. . ’ ” (445–5 n. 12, citing James 1909: 274 = James 1978: 313). Although the Equivalence Schema is implicated in the Liar Paradox, and may need to be qualified or restricted in some way, it is generally regarded as fundamental to our use of the truth predicate.

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