By Gideon Freudenthal
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1. difficulties and strategies of Analysis.- 2. technological know-how and Philosophy; Newton and Leibniz.- three. ‘Absolute’ and ‘Relative’ Space.- four. Newton’s thought of house and the gap conception of Newtonianism.- five. The Leibniz-Newton dialogue and the Leibniz-Clarke Correspondence.- One/Element and method in Classical Mechanics.- I. Newton’s Justification of the idea of Absolute Space.- 1. Absolute movement and Absolute house; Newton’s First Presupposition.- 2. evidence of the lifestyles of a Vacuum; Newton’s moment Presupposition.- three. ‘Density’ and ‘Quantity of Matter’.- four. evidence of the lifestyles of Empty Space.- five. the fundamental homes of a Particle in Empty house; the matter of Gravitation.- 6. Newton’s legislation of Inertia.- 7. A unmarried Particle in Empty house; Newton’s primary Presupposition.- II. Leibniz’s Foundations of Dynamics.- 1. Leibniz’s New degree of Force.- 2. Descartes’ errors and the boundaries of the belief of Leibniz.- three. motion motrice.- four. Leibniz’s legislations of Inertia.- five. Absolute movement and Absolute Space.- 6. Density.- 7. legislation of impression, Elasticity, and the concept that of a cloth Body.- III. The dialogue among Leibniz and Newton at the idea of Science.- 1. Newton’s degree of strength and God’s Intervention.- 2. Newton’s proposal of Gravity and house because the Sensorium Dei.- three. Leibniz’s Critique of the Unscientific personality of Newton’s Philosophy.- four. The Clock as a systematic Model.- five. technological know-how and Unscientific Philosophy: Newton’s Contradictory Views.- 6. Results.- Two/Element and approach in glossy Philosophy.- IV. the concept that of point in seventeenth Century average Philosophy.- 1. Bacon.- 2. Descartes.- three. Newton’s Critique of Descartes; Boyle’s Compromise.- V. the idea that of aspect within the Systematic Philosophy of Hobbes.- VI. the concept that of point in 18th Century Social Philosophy.- 1. Jean-Jacques Rousseau.- 2. Adam Smith.- VII. the connection among average and Social Philosophy within the paintings of Newton, Rousseau, and Smith.- Three/On the Social background of the Bourgeois idea of the Individual.- VIII. England prior to the Revolution.- 1. city, state, and the Poor.- 2. The Politics of the Stuarts.- three. The Church.- four. estate and Protestantism opposed to Feudalism and Papism.- five. useful and Theoretical fight for Sovereignty.- IX. The Antifeudal Social Philosophy of Hobbes.- 1. Thomas Aquinas’ Doctrine of Nature as a Hierarchical Organism of Unequal Elements.- 2. Thomas Aquinas’ Doctrine of Society as a Hierarchical Organism of Unequal Elements.- three. Catholic Church and state nation within the seventeenth Century.- four. Hobbes’s thought of the kingdom as a freelance of equivalent and Autarchic Individuals.- five. Hobbes’s Political Program.- 6. the debate with Feudal conception and the Analytic-Synthetic Method.- X. the increase of Civil Society in England.- 1. The Levellers.- 2. The Suppression of the Levellers.- three. recovery: Whigs and Tories.- four. The Theoretical Controversies among Whigs and Tories; Locke and Newton as Whigs.- five. The Reign of the ‘Plusmakers’.- XI. substitute Conceptions of Civil Society.- 1. The Capitalistic Commodity creation of self sufficient vendors: Adam Smith.- 2. the straightforward Commodity creation of self reliant inner most owners: Jean-Jacques Rousseau.- XII. Civil Society and Analytic-Synthetic Method.- 1. Society as an combination of Autarchic Individuals.- 2. research as settling on the homes of unmarried Individuals.- three. Results.- Four/Atom and Individual.- XIII. The Bourgeois person and the fundamental homes of a Particle in Newton’s Thought.- 1. Passivity and job as crucial Properties.- 2. Newton’s ‘Ego sum et cogito’.- three. Freedom and Spontaneity.- four. Will and physique; energetic and Passive Principle.- five. The procedure of ‘Natural Freedom’ within the country and on the earth System.- 6. approach of Philosophy.- 7. Newtonian Ideology.- XIV. aspect and procedure within the Philosophy of Leibniz.- 1. The ‘Oppressed Counsellor’.- 2. at the Social Philosophy of Leibniz.- three. The Double feel of illustration in Mechanics and Metaphysics.- Afterword.- Notes.- Bibliography of Works Cited.- record of Abbreviations.- identify Index.
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Extra resources for Atom and Individual in the Age of Newton: On the Genesis of the Mechanistic World View (Boston Studies in the Philosophy and History of Science, Volume 88)
It is just this general elasticity of the bodies of the world that Malebranche (against whom Leibniz is arguing here) denied; and Leibniz, like everyone else, knew quite well that the perfect elasticity of bodies cannot be proved empirically; on the contrary, it can seemingly be refuted without much trouble. Thus, after Leibniz's refutation of the Cartesian law of universal conservation of the quantity of motion (mv), it could seem as if there were no force-quantity which is conserved in the world.
This assumption could not 20 GIDEON FREUDENTHAL be examined empirically since only material bodies could be weighed, accelerated, and measured - not their ultimate elements. While the mass of a body can be determined empirically only by measurement, it can nonetheless be defined as the product of the mass of the uniform particle multiplied by the number of particles in the particular body. The density of a material can be expressed empirically only by the relation of the masses of two bodies of equal volume; it can however be defined as the number of particles of equal volume in a volume unit of that kind of matter.
According to the interpretation presented above, essential properties are those which are attributable to a material body independently of the existence of the system of the world, that is, in empty space. , 54; Cajori, 13). In the explication of the law we are not told, in regard to which frame of reference a body is supposed to continue in its "state of rest, or of uniform motion in a right line". The distinction between 'rest' and 'uniform motion' implies, however, an absolutely resting frame of reference, and this can only be absolute space (Scholium to Def.