By J. H. W. G. Liebeschuetz
During this illuminating research Liebeschuetz examines basic issues of overdue Antiquity: the barbarization of the Roman military and the interrelation of Church and secular executive. He discusses Alaric's Goths within the West, who have been handled as a federate regiment instead of a migrating tribe; how the civilian gurus at Constantinople maintained keep watch over over the principally German military in a clash that culminated within the Gainas emerging; and the way an analogous gurus got here into clash with John Chrysostom, the bishop of Constantinople, and had him deposed.
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Additional resources for Barbarians and Bishops: Army, Church, and State in the Age of Arcadius and Chrysostom
Whittaker, in M. I. Finley (1976) I37-65. G. Duby (1965) shows that in the Middle Ages abandonment after a serious recession was often temporary. P. Lemerle (I 954) and V. Velkov (1962) produce evidence that even in the much invaded Balkans desertion of land was often not permanent. P. Vanangs ( 1979) argues that deserted land legislation aimed at countering the extension of great estates. 72 G. E. M. de Ste Croix (1981) 509-I8. Reasons for the Recruiting of Barbarians development goes back to the third century.
27 It is quite likely that Goths were settled in the frontier region under their own chieftains in the same way and with the same purpose. On the other hand we are also ~~ 2 See n. 6 above. E. Demougeot (I 979 ). ~ G. Alfoldy (I974) 341-5; L. Varady (I969) 31-3, 36-9; H. Wolfram (1979) 154-5, 3 IO-I 23 1. Campaigns for the Empire in 388, 393, and perhaps 402, separated by periods of marauding in Pannonia. 2 "' The date: Chron. Minor i. 243 'universa genus Gothorum cum rege suo in Romaniam se tradiderunt die V non.
Mil. per Orientem in 378 (Amm. xxxi. I6. 8). Zos. iv. 26 makes these Goths young hostages, but Ammianus is to be believed. Later Gainas' Goths too (see below, p. ooo) presumably enlisted individually, as did Goths mingled with Romans in regular units: Zos. iv. 3 I. v. Fravitta, Gainas, Modares, Munderichus, Tribigild. 36 Nothing is known of the government of the settled Goths, but the facts that their sense of tribal identity survived so strongly, that most of them did not receive citizenship, and that Gothic units were led by Gothic nobles all suggest that they continued to be ruled by their own leaders in accordance with their old customs-as far as still relevant.