By Daniel I.A. Cohen

This vintage (1978) textbook is 30 years outdated, yet nonetheless very priceless and relevent. It covers the fundamental undergraduate path in combinatorial good judgment, idea, and perform; not anyone has ever performed it higher. along with a transparent and easy-to-understand exposition, this booklet has the very best challenge units that i've got ever noticeable. There are, I admit, a few extra complicated books with contemporary effects. but when you really need to appreciate this topic, and when you are prepared to paintings via enormous quantities of good difficulties, i will be able to warrantly you that Cohen is your guy!

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**Sample text**

A ± b) (mod n) = ((a mod n) ± (b mod n)) (mod n), 2. (a × b) (mod n) = ((a mod n) × (b mod n)) (mod n). These follow immediately from the definition. In other words, the modulus of a sum or difference is equal to the sum or difference of the individual moduli (reduced mod n), and the same goes for products. If a = b (mod n) then a and b are said to be congruent mod n, and the value b (mod n) is referred to as a congruence. The values 0 to n − 1 are called the residues modulo n. The set of these residues is denoted Zn .

A system with two different, but related, keys: one for encryption and one for decryption. Secret-key cryptosystem. A system that uses the same key for encryption and decryption. Symmetric and asymmetric cryptosystems. Alternative names for secretkey and public-key cryptosystems, respectively. 20 Cryptography with Open-Source Software Exercises Review Questions 1. What is the distinction between a private and a public-key cryptosystem? 2. What does it mean to attack a cryptosystem? 3. In the context of cryptography, what is a protocol?

It is over 2000 years old, but is still holding up well. Here is how it works: 1. Find the remainder when m is divided by n. ) If m < n, the result will be just m. 2. Now set m = n and n = m mod n. 3. Repeat the above steps until m mod n = 0. Then the gcd is n. Rather than give a formal proof, note that the algorithm can be described as a sequence of steps: m = q1 n + r1 n = q2 r1 + r2 r1 = q3 r2 + r3 .. rk−2 = qk rk−1 + rk rk−1 = qk+1 rk where the final remainder, rk+1 , is zero. By definition rk is a divisor of rk−1 , and hence by the previous line it is a divisor of rk−2 .